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By E. Irmak. Wheaton College, Wheaton Illinois.

What I suggest is that a man should make up his mind with emphasis as to what he rationally believes cheap urso 300 mg without prescription, and should never allow con- trary irrational beliefs to pass unchallenged or obtain a hold over him urso 150mg with mastercard, however brief. This is a question of reason- ing with himself in those moments in which he is tempted to become infantile, but the reasoning, if it is sufficiently emphatic, may be very brief. Lecky believed that it was inherent in the very nature of "mind" itself, that all ideas and concepts which make up the total content of "personality" must seem to be consistent with each other. If the inconsistency of a given idea is consciously recog- nized, it must be rejected. One of my patients was a salesman who was "scared to death" when calling upon "big shots. These are (1) the feeling or belief that one is capable of doing his share, holding up his end of the log, exerting a certain amount of independence and (2) the belief that there is "something" inside you which should not be allowed to suffer indignities. Examine and Re-evaluate Your Beliefs One of the reasons that the power of rational thinking goes unrecognized is that it is so seldom used. Trace down the belief about yourself, or the belief about the world, or other people, which is behind your negative behavior. Does "something always happen" to cause you to miss out just when success seems within your grasp? Perhaps you believe you are inferior to them, or that other people per se are hostile and unfriendly. Do you become anxious and fearful for no good reason in a situation that is relatively safe? Perhaps you believe that the world you live in is a hostile, unfriendly, dangerous place, or that you "deserve punishment. To root out the belief which is responsible for your feeling and behavior—ask yourself, "why? Would I come to the same conclusion about some other person in a similar situation? Why should I continue to act and feel as if this were true if there is no good reason to believe it? Can you see that you have cheated yourself and sold your- self short—not because of a "fact"—but only because of some stupid belief? Alfred Adler "got mad" at himself and at his teacher and was enabled to throw off a negative definition of himself. An old farmer said he quit tobacco for good one day when he discovered he had left his tobacco home and started to walk the two miles for it. Clarence Darrow, the famous attorney, said his success started the day that he "got mad" when he attempted to secure a mortgage for $2,000 to buy a house. A failure at 40, he continually worried about "how things would come out," about his own inadequa- cies, and whether or not he would be able to complete each business venture. But he found a way—and within three years was more successful than he had ever dreamed of being—not in one business, but in three. The Power of Deep Desire Rational thought, to be effective in changing belief and behavior, must be accompanied by deep feeling and desire. Picture to yourself what you would like to be and have, and assume for the moment that such things might be pos- sible. Generate enough emotion, or deep feeling, and your new thoughts and ideas will cancel them out. If you will analyze this you will see that you are using a process you have often used before—worry! After a time, appropriate emotions are automatically generated—fear, anxiety, discouragement- all these are appropriate to the undesirable end result you are worrying about. Many of us unconsciously and unwittingly, by holding negative attitudes and habitually picturing failure to ourselves in our imagination—set up goals of failure. Also remember that your automatic mechanism does not reason about, nor question, the data you feed it. It is very important that the automatic mechanism be given true facts concerning the environment. This is the job of conscious rational thought: to know the truth, to form correct evaluations, estimations, opinions. You simply must learn that if you can interest the neighbor you can interest all the neighbors, or the world, and not be frozen by mag- nitudes. Many people are bowled over by the chance remark of a friend—"You do not look so well this morning. If our conscious mind is working and on the job, we do not have to accept them blindly. It is the job of the conscious rational mind to form log- ical and correct conclusions. We get into trouble when we either neglect to use conscious thinking in the way that it is meant to be used, or when we attempt to use it in a way that it was never meant to be used. We cannot squeeze creative thought out of the Creative Mech- anism by making conscious effort. In short, conscious rational thought selects the goal, gathers information, concludes, evaluates, estimates and starts the wheels in motion.

Although it is theoretically possible to work with less pure label buy urso 300mg with visa, from a prac­ tical standpoint buy urso 300mg online, at least 50% of the total radioactivity should be capable of binding to antibody so that B/F ratios (bound labeled antigen/free labeled antigen) of 1. Second, the specific activity, or the ratio of radioactiv­ ity to mass of antigen (e. The concentration of labeled antigen employed should not be much greater than, and preferably should be smaller than, the lowest concentration of unlabeled antigen to be measured. For example, itis unlikely that an antigen concentration of 10 M ( can be detected using a labeled antigen at 10. This is because the error in delivering and counting the labeled antigen may be greater than the 1% increment provided by the unlabeled antigen, and also because a 1% increment in total antigenconcentration will not appreciably alter the B/F ratio. The desired specific activity depends on the sensitivity of the counting system, the volume of incubation mixture to be counted, and the concentration of antigen to be measured. When antigens are found in fluids at concentrations below 200 pg/mL, special attention must be given to the limitations imposed on the labeled antigen. Sensitivity limit­ ations imposed by labeled antigen of low specific activity can be appreciated by studying the effect of varying the number of counts used in the assay on the total binding of labeled antigen. If, for a given antibody concentration, a reduction in the number of counts per assay tube results in an increase in the B/F and a sharper initial slope for the standard curve, then the labeled antigen can be considered to be limiting because of low specific ^|ivity. The specific activity may be increased by increasing the i/antigen ratio in the iodination mixture and/or by employing a purification procedure which separates components on the basis of charge. Purification of the iodination mixture requires the recovery of the labeled antigen after the removal of damaged antigen and unre­ acted radioiodide. Damaged peptide antigens frequently adsorb to albumin and a globulins, thereby increasing their molecular size. Rapid purificaiton methods based on the adsorption of the labeled antigens to cellulose and silica granules, or on differences in the molecular size of components are frequently adequate although they generally do not separate labeled from unlabeled antigen. When this is required ion exchange chromatography or electrophoresis may be used to separate the more negatively changed labeled antigen. The standards and unknowns need not be chemically identical, nor do they have to be of identical biologic potencies. The source of standard antigen will depend upon thé biology of the organism and the antigen. It may be a culture medium, a cell wall preparation, an extract of whole cells, or a plasma or other body fluid containing high concentrations of antigen. It is very helpful to have common standard reference preparations available for general use so that assay results can be compared between labo­ ratories. Standards should be evaluated for immunochemical stability and for adsorption to glass and plastic surfaces. New lots of standard should always be compared with earlier lots to assure continuity of standardization. Occasionally, spontaneous precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes allows direct separation of bound and free labeled antigen by centrifu­ gation. Many depend upon the adsorption of free antigen to solid phase material such as cellulose, charcoal, silicates, or ion exchange resins. Others depend upon the adsorption or complexing of antibody to solid phase material. Still others depend upon the precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes by salting out techniques, organic solvents, or double antibody precipitation. It is, however, expensive of second antibody and can frequently be replaced by more rapid, less costly methods. Sensitivity, Specificity and Validation of the Assay: Immunochemical reactions are capable of achieveing a high degree of specificity, but cross reactions with closely related antigens are observed frequently. It will therefore be very important in the field of communicable diseases to consider the possibility of cross­ reactions from antigenically related organisms. In some circum­ stances, for example among the disease producing mycobacteria, cross­ reactivity may be beneficial. Nonetheless, careful characterization of assay specificity by examining antigens derived from a wide variety of organisms will always be required. Immunochemical reactions, like all chemical reactions, are in­ fluenced by the nature and composition of the milieu within which they occur. In addition, the separation of bound and free antigen may be affected by extraneous substances in the incubation mixtures. Non- immunochemical effects can be produced by the introduction of changes in the pH or ionic strength of the incubation mixture, to temper­ ature effects, to the presence of anticoagulants or preservatives, or to variable damage of the labeled hormone and/or antibody in the incubation of unknowns as compared to standards. In the area of communicable diseases it should be noted that the presence of organisms or their products in assay incubates may result in enzymatic degradation of antigen and/or antibody. First, in order to establish that the antigen in culture media, plasma, or other body fluids is reacting in the same way as the standard anti­ gen, the unknown sample should be assayed at multiple dilutions to ascertain that the apparent concentration is a linear function of the dilution factor. This is a necessary but insufficient condi­ tion to establish that the antigens in standards and unknowns are immunochemically identical. Third, there should be low or non-measurable immunoreactivity in samples obtained from patients known to be free of the disease. Finally, the immunoreactive material detected in samples of patients with the disease should behave in a way similar to the standard antigen in a variety of physicochemical systems.

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